Within the plunge of 2015, a rash of posters appeared around Copenhagen. One, in crimson letters laid over an image of chicken eggs, asked, “Delight in you ever counted your eggs on the present time?” A 2nd — a blue-tinted terminate-up of human sperm — inquired, “Dwell they swim too late?”
The posters, segment of a marketing campaign funded by town to remind young Danes of the silent ticking of their biological clocks, grasp been not universally appreciated. They drew criticism for equating ladies folk with breeding cattle. The timing, too, used to be clumsy: For some, encouraging Danes to manufacture more babies whereas tv files programs showed Syrian refugees trudging via Europe carried an inadvertent whiff of gruesome nativism.
Dr. Soren Ziebe, used chairman of the Danish Fertility Society and one of many brains within the succor of the marketing campaign, believes the criticism used to be value weathering. As the pinnacle of Denmark’s most consuming public fertility sanatorium, Dr. Ziebe thinks these forms of messages, fraught as they are, are sorely wanted. Denmark’s fertility price has been below substitute stage — that is, the stage desired to construct a real inhabitants — for a protracted time. And as Dr. Ziebe solutions out, the decline just isn’t completely the pinnacle outcome of more of us deliberately picking childlessness: Many of his sufferers are older couples and single ladies folk who want a family, nevertheless might maybe even grasp waited until too unhurried.
However the marketing campaign furthermore seriously did not land with some of its high targets, alongside with Dr. Ziebe’s be pleased college-age daughter. After she and loads of alternative classmates at Copenhagen College interviewed him for a project on the marketing campaign, Dr. Ziebe sought answers of his be pleased.
“I asked them, ‘Now, you admire — you grasp gotten gained a form of files, a form of files. What are you going to switch in your be pleased inner most lives?’ he said. He shook his head. “The respond used to be ‘Nothing.’ Nothing!”
If any nation needs to be stocked with babies, it is Denmark. The nation is one of many wealthiest in Europe. New oldsters experience 12 months’ paid family creep away and extremely subsidized day care. Ladies below 40 can safe advise-funded in vitro fertilization. However Denmark’s fertility price, at 1.7 births per woman, is roughly on par with that of the United States. A reproductive malaise has settled over this otherwise pleased land.
It’s not upright Danes. Fertility charges grasp been dropping precipitously across the enviornment for a protracted time — in middle-earnings countries, in some low-earnings countries, nevertheless maybe most markedly, in rich ones.
Declining fertility on the total accompanies the spread of economic style, and it’s not basically a unpleasant thing. At its easiest, it displays greater academic and profession alternatives for ladies folk, increasing acceptance of the choice to be tiny one-free, and rising requirements of living.
At its worst, though, it displays a profound failure: of employers and governments to manufacture parenting and work like minded; of our collective ability to resolve the climate crisis so that teenagers seem a rational prospect; of our more and more unequal global economy. In these circumstances, having fewer teenagers is much less a dedication than the poignant of a situation of unsavory circumstances.
Decades of be taught files divulge that folk’s acknowledged preferences grasp shifted toward smaller households. However they furthermore divulge that in nation after nation, loyal fertility has fallen faster than notions of perfect family dimension. Within the United States, the gap between how many teenagers of us need and how many they’ve has widened to a 40-yr excessive. In a document masking 28 countries within the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Pattern, ladies folk reported a median desired family dimension of 2.3 teenagers in 2016, and men wished for 2.2. However few hit their target. Something is stopping us from establishing the households we screech to need. However what?
There are as many answers to this seek files from as there are of us picking whether or to not reproduce. On the national stage, what demographers name “underachieving fertility” finds explanations starting from the glaring absence of family-pleasant policies within the United States to gender inequality in South Korea to excessive formative years unemployment across Southern Europe. It has triggered considerations about public finances and workforce stability and, in some circumstances, contributed to rising xenophobia.
However these all omit the bigger image.
Our most modern version of world capitalism — one from which few countries and folks are in an arena to opt out — has generated hideous wealth for some, and precarity for many more. These economic prerequisites generate social prerequisites inimical to starting households: Our workweeks are longer and our wages lower, leaving us much less cash and time to satisfy, court and plunge in esteem. Our more and more winner-clutch-all economies require that teenagers safe intensive parenting and dear educations, establishing rising alarm around what assemble of life a would-be parent might maybe present. A lifetime of messaging directs us toward other pursuits as a substitute: education, work, travel.
These economic and social dynamics combine with the degeneration of our ambiance in ways in which rarely support childbearing: Chemicals and pollutants seep into our bodies, disrupting our endocrine programs. On any given day, evidently some segment of the inhabited world is either on fire or underwater.
To pain about falling birthrates on epic of they threaten social security programs or future workforce power is to omit the point; they are a symptom of one thing rather more pervasive.
It appears to be like obvious that what we now grasp come to take into epic as “unhurried capitalism” — that is, not upright the economic machine, nevertheless all its attendant inequalities, indignities, alternatives and absurdities — has modified into antagonistic to replica. Across the enviornment, economic, social and environmental prerequisites feature as a diffuse, barely perceptible contraceptive. And yes, it is even occurring in Denmark.
Danes don’t face the horrors of American student debt, our debilitating medical bills or our lack of paid family creep away. College is free. Profits inequality is low. Briefly, most of the factors that cause young People to lengthen having households merely aren’t divulge.
Even so, many Danes safe themselves contending with the non secular maladies that accompany unhurried capitalism even in prosperous, egalitarian countries. With their primary needs met and an abundance of alternatives at their fingertips, Danes as a substitute must grapple with the promise and force of seemingly limitless freedom, that will combine to manufacture teenagers an afterthought, or an unwelcome intrusion on a life that gives rewards and satisfactions of a diversified form — an taking part profession, esoteric hobbies, exotic holidays.
“Of us voice that ‘teenagers are the biggest thing in my life,’” said Dr. Ziebe, a father of two. In distinction, of us who haven’t tried it — who can’t imagine the shifts in priorities it produces, nor fathom its rewards — seek parenting as an unwelcome accountability. “Kids voice, ‘Having teenagers is the pinnacle of my life.’”
There are, to verify that, many of us for whom not having teenagers is a dedication, and rising societal acceptance of voluntary childlessness is for sure a step forward, especially for ladies folk. However the rising utilize of assisted reproductive applied sciences in Denmark and in diversified locations (in Finland, as an illustration, the fragment of teenagers born via assisted replica has virtually doubled in somewhat bigger than a decade; in Denmark, it accounts for an estimated one in 10 births) suggests that the identical of us that seek teenagers as a hindrance in most cases come to need them.
Kristine Marie Foss, a networking specialist and match manager, nearly left out out on parenthood. A worldly woman with a warm smile, Ms. Foss, now 50, continuously dreamed of discovering esteem, nevertheless none of her serious boyfriends lasted. She spent most of her 30s and 40s single; these grasp been furthermore the a protracted time in which she labored as an interior clothier, created loads of social networks (alongside with one for singles, “sooner than it used to be frigid to be single”), and expanded and deepened her friendships.
It wasn’t until she used to be 39 that she realized it might be time to launch pondering seriously about a family. A routine converse over with to the gynecologist triggered an unexpected revelation: “If I modified into 50 or 60 and I don’t grasp teenagers, I know I’m going to abominate myself the remainder of my life,” said Ms. Foss, now the mummy of a 9-yr-outdated and 6-yr-outdated via a sperm donor. Ms. Foss has joined the ranks of what Danes name “solomor,” or single moms by dedication, a cohort that has been rising since 2007, when the Danish executive began masking IVF for single ladies folk.
There are of us who grasp continuously sought to do the blame for declining fertility, in some formula, on ladies folk — for his or her person selfishness in eschewing motherhood, or for his or her embrace of feminism’s expansion of ladies folk’s roles. However the instinct to explore life with out teenagers just isn’t restricted to ladies folk. In Denmark, one out of 5 men will by no contrivance modified into a parent, a resolve that is expounded within the United States.
Anders Krarup is a 43-yr-outdated instrument developer living in Copenhagen who just not too long within the past rediscovered his esteem of fishing. Most weekends he drives to the Zealand soar, where he communes with the sea trout. When he’s not working at his launch-up, he meets associates for concerts. As for a family, he’s not in particular .
“I’m feeling very declare material with my life for the time being,” he instructed me.
Mads Tolderlund is a apt consultant who works out of doorways of Copenhagen. At age 5, he used to be struck with wanderlust when he noticed an commercial for Uluru, or Ayers Rock, in Australia. He at final resolved to chat over with every continent in his lifetime, and on the present time, at 31, has upright Antarctica to creep. In his admire, of us grasp teenagers either on epic of they in fact need them, on epic of they pain the penalties of not having them, or on epic of it’s the “common” thing. None of these causes observe to him.
“I with out a doubt grasp so many other issues that I want to achieve,” he said.
Are all these alternatives not precisely what capitalism promised us? We grasp been instructed that equipped with the gorgeous education, work ethic and vision, shall we grasp first price success and disposable earnings that shall we utilize to modified into basically the most consuming, most cultured, most toned variations of ourselves. We learned that doing these items — learning, working, establishing, traveling — used to be rewarding and vital.
Trent MacNamara, an assistant professor of history at Texas A&M College, has been pondering human attitudes toward fertility and family for over a decade. Economic prerequisites, he notes, are perfect segment of the image. What might maybe also topic more are “the tiny upright indicators we ship every other,” he writes in a coming near near essay, indicators that are “per wide pointers on dignity, identification, transcendence and which contrivance.” As of late, we now grasp chanced on diversified ways to manufacture which contrivance, assemble identities and show to transcendence.
On this context, he said, having teenagers might maybe also appear to be no bigger than a “quixotic lifestyle dedication” absent other social cues reinforcing the premise that parenting connects of us “to one thing uniquely dignified, precious and transcendent.” Those cues are more and more complex to look at or promote in a secular world in which a capitalist ethos — extract, optimize, make, attain, develop — prevails. The build different cost programs exist, then again, babies would be extraordinary. Within the United States, as an illustration, communities of Orthodox and Hasidic Jews, Mormons and Mennonites grasp birthrates greater than the national common.
Lyman Stone, an economist who reviews inhabitants, solutions to 2 aspects of approved life that correlate with low fertility: rising “workism” — a time interval popularized by the Atlantic author Derek Thompson — and declining religiosity. “There is a need for which contrivance-making in folks,” Mr. Stone instructed me. With out religion, one formula of us admire external validation is via work, which, when it becomes a dominant cultural cost, is “inherently fertility decreasing.”
Denmark, he notes, just isn’t a workaholic culture, nevertheless is extremely secular. East Asia, where fertility charges are amongst the bottom within the enviornment, is steadily both. In South Korea, as an illustration, the executive has launched tax incentives for childbearing and expanded entry to day care. However “indecent workism” and the persistence of outdated-usual gender roles grasp combined to manufacture parenting more complex, and in particular unappealing for ladies folk, who clutch on a 2nd shift at home.
The variation between life in shrimp Denmark, with its generous social welfare machine and its excessive marks for gender equality, and life in China, where social help is spotty and women folk face rampant discrimination, is big. Yet both countries face fertility charges smartly below substitute stages.
If Denmark illustrates the ways in which capitalist values of individualism and self-actualization can then again clutch root in a nation where its cruelest effects grasp been blunted, China is an example of how these identical values can sharpen into competition so cutthroat that oldsters converse of “winning from the starting line,” that is, equipping their teenagers with advantages from the earliest possible age. (One pupil instructed me this might maybe even encompass timing belief to succor somewhat one in faculty admissions.)
After a protracted time of limiting most households to upright one tiny one, the executive announced in 2015 that one and all couples grasp been accredited to grasp two. Despite this, fertility has barely budged. China’s fertility price in 2018 used to be 1.6.
The Chinese language executive has long sought to engineer its inhabitants, decreasing quantity in stammer to present a exercise to “quality.” These efforts are more and more pondering about what Susan Greenhalgh, a professor of Chinese language society at Harvard, describes as “cultivating global citizens” via education, the formula via which Chinese language of us and the nation as a total can compete within the worldwide economy.
By the 1980s, she said, tiny one-rearing in China had modified into professionalized, formed by the pronouncements of education, smartly being and tiny one psychology consultants. As of late, elevating a quality tiny one just isn’t upright a topic of maintaining up with basically the most modern tiny one-rearing advice; it’s a dedication to spending whatever it takes.
“These notions of the usual tiny one, the usual person, got articulated within the language of the market,” she said. “It contrivance, ‘What can we clutch for the tiny one? Now we grasp to take a piano, we have to take dance classes, we have to take an American experience.’”
Speaking to young Chinese language of us that grasp benefited from their oldsters’ investments in them, I heard echoes of their Danish peers. For these with the gorgeous credentials, the previous few a protracted time grasp opened up alternatives their oldsters by no contrivance imagined, making having teenagers perceive burdensome by comparability.
“I’ve like I upright got out of faculty, upright began working,” said Joyce Yuan, a 27-yr-outdated Beijing-based mostly interpreter, whose plans consist of incomes an M.B.A. out of doorways of China. “I gentle declare that I’m on the very starting of my life.”
However Ms. Yuan and others grasp been furthermore snappily to divulge China’s harsh economic prerequisites, a part that from time to time, if ever, got here up in Denmark. She cited, as an illustration, the excessive cost of city living. “All the pieces is sizable dear,” she said, and quality of life, especially in wide cities, “is extremely low.”
The factors suppressing fertility in China are divulge for the interval of the nation: In rural areas, where 41 p.c of its virtually 1.4 billion citizens gentle stay, there is tiny enthusiasm for 2nd teenagers, and policymakers can seemingly attain even much less about it. In Xuanwei Prefecture, after the central executive announced in 2013 that couples in which one associate used to be an perfect tiny one might maybe observe for permission to grasp a 2nd tiny one, upright 36 of us sought such approval within the first three months — in an arena of around 1.25 million of us. “Native family planning officers blamed economic force on young couples for the low clutch-up,” the authors of a be taught on China and fertility wrote.
In city settings, the alternatives for education and enrichment are more extraordinary, and the sense of competition more intense. However Chinese language couples everywhere are privy to the pressures of the nation’s hyper-capitalist economy, where atmosphere somewhat one down the gorgeous direction might maybe mean life-altering alternatives, whereas heading down the wicked one contrivance insecurity and fight.
As entry to varsity has expanded, the ticket of a diploma is value not as a lot as it as soon as used to be. Competition for locations in high colleges has grown more brutal, and the have to speculate heavily in somewhat one from the launch more crucial. For many moms, arranging the particulars of somewhat one’s education, considered as basically the most important channel for upgrading his or her “quality,” has nearly modified into a stout-time job, said Dr. Greenhalgh.
One Beijing resident, Li Youyou, 33, sees the stratified nature of replica in China taking part in out inner her be pleased circle. A prosperous buddy with a excessive-incomes husband is having her 2nd tiny one this yr. One more, from a modest background, gave delivery this summer; when Ms. Li asked her about a 2nd, she said she might maybe barely scrutinize offering for this one. Ms. Li, who teaches English, used to be planning a converse over with to speak a reward for the tiny one. She questioned if she might maybe grasp to upright give cash.
Ms. Li has no advance-time interval plans for a family. She hopes as a substitute to pursue a doctorate in linguistics, preferably within the United States.
“Having a relationship just isn’t my priority gorgeous now,” she said. “I more want to middle of attention on my profession.”
My be pleased experience as an American has been in some respects Danish, in others Chinese language. I’m one of many fortunate ones: Due to this of scholarships, and my mother’s gargantuan sacrifices, I graduated from college with out debt. Thus unencumbered, I spent most of my 20s working and discovering out in every other nation. Alongside the formula, I got two master’s degrees, and built a rewarding, if not especially remunerative, profession. In my unhurried 20s, I learned about egg freezing. It gave the impression like a secret weapon I might maybe utilize to stave off the choice of if and when to grasp teenagers — an absolution, of forms, for spending these years in every other nation and never browsing terribly laborious for a partner.
At 34, I at final underwent the job. Final yr, I did every other spherical. Ever since then, there’s a number I’ve been taking part in with as I’ve questioned about whether or not and when I might utilize these eggs. Based fully on my succor-of-the envelope calculations, I might maybe grasp to grasp $200,000 saved sooner than having somewhat one.
To be obvious, I’m fully mindful that folk some distance worse off than me grasp teenagers always. I know that even the chance of a pre-being pregnant financial savings target vaults me firmly into the realm of tragicomic middle-class absurdity. I’m resolutely not asserting that whenever you don’t grasp this (or any sum of) cash, that you simply need to grasp to rethink teenagers.
Rather, this number is a hybrid — an acknowledgment of the financial realities of single parenthood, nevertheless furthermore the arithmetic crystallization of my anxieties around parenthood in our precarious expertise. To me, it demonstrates that even with my extraordinary privileges, it’ll gentle feel so perilous, and on some days impossible, to speak somewhat one into the enviornment. And from the handfuls of conversations I’ve had in reporting this essay, it’s obvious these anxieties are shaping the selections of many others, too.
The build did I safe the $200,000 resolve from? First, there’s not not as a lot as $40,000 for two rounds of IVF. (That I’m contemplating this route furthermore speaks to the obstacles of relationship below unhurried capitalism — nevertheless that’s a field for a diversified article.) Thousands of dollars in smartly being middle bills for a delivery, provided it’s not an advanced one.
As a freelancer, I wouldn’t be eligible for paid creep away, so I’d either need tiny one care (with out complications $25,000 a yr or more) until the tiny one begins prekindergarten, or grasp enough saved to boost us whereas I’m not working. I might maybe sell my studio rental, nevertheless homeownership is a key contrivance via which oldsters pay for varsity, and I’m as anxious of relinquishing this asset as I’m of launching somewhat one into the job market sans greater education credentials. On some days, I divulge myself I’m being guilty by waiting. On other days, I ponder how this alarm over my divulge might maybe crowd out the long coast I envision.
The point just isn’t with out a doubt whether or not $200,000 is inexpensive; it is that the very thought of attaching a buck resolve to an experience as momentous as parenthood is a signal of how grand my advise of thoughts has been warped by this methodology that leaves us every so very grand on our be pleased, in an arena to avail ourselves of perfect what we are going to pay for.
For a protracted time, of us with as grand valid fortune as I with out a doubt grasp grasp been slightly proof against these anxieties. However most of the difficulties that grasp long faced working-class ladies folk, and in particular ladies folk of coloration, are trickling up. These ladies folk grasp labored multiple jobs with out stability or benefits, and raised teenagers in communities with underfunded colleges or poisoned water; on the present time, middle-class oldsters, too, are time-starved, squeezed out of valid faculty districts, and anxious about plastic and air pollution.
Within the 1990s, shaded feminists, facing the prerequisites above, developed the analytical framework is known as reproductive justice, an capability that goes previous reproductive rights as they are normally understood — entry to abortion and contraceptives — to encompass the gorgeous to grasp teenagers humanely: to “grasp teenagers, not grasp teenagers, and parent the teenagers we now grasp in safe and sustainable communities,” because the collective SisterSong do it.
Reproductive justice used to be not continuously smartly understood or embraced by mainstream reproductive rights groups. (Loretta Ross, one of many founders of the motion, said an early middle of attention neighborhood chanced on of us belief the time interval referred to looking out out for fairness for photocopiers.) However the trickling up of reproductive injustice might maybe maybe give it broader traction. “White The US is now feeling the effects of neoliberalism capitalism that the remainder of The US has continuously felt,” Ms. Ross said.
Are we prepared, though, for what it asks of us? Ms. Ross compared reproductive justice activism to parenting. “For these that parent, you’ve started working on safe drinking water, and safe colleges and a dapper bedroom on the identical time,” she said. “Of us’s lives are holistic and interconnected. Which that it’s possible you’ll maybe also’t pull on one thread with out shaking up your total thing.” Considered on this gentle, incremental enhancements like paid parental creep away are perfect a partial fix for our most modern crisis, a handful of crumbs when our bodies and souls require a nourishing meal.
The answer, attributable to this reality, is to not compel a man like Anders Krarup to do aside his fishing and procreate, nor to dissuade Li Youyou from pursuing her Ph.D. As a substitute, we must acknowledge how their choices clutch space in a broader context, formed by interrelated factors that would be laborious to discern.
The topic, to be obvious, just isn’t with out a doubt one of “inhabitants,” a time interval that since its earliest utilize, in accordance with the pupil Michelle Murphy, has been a “profoundly objectifying and dehumanizing” formula to focus on human life. Different of hundreds of babies are born on this planet every day; of us all over the enviornment grasp confirmed they are willing to migrate to wealthier countries for jobs. Rather, the topic is the silent human tragedies, born of preventable constraints — an employer’s indifference, a belated realization, a poisoned body — that fabricate the wished tiny one impossible.
The crisis in replica lurks within the shadows, nevertheless is considered whenever you gaze it. It shows up every yr that birthrates plumb a new low. It’s within the persistent creep with the trip of reviews linking infertility and sorrowful delivery outcomes to virtually every characteristic of approved life — rapid-meals wrappers, air air pollution, pesticides. It is miles the craving in your associates’ voices as they admire at their first tiny one, taking part in of their too-small rental, and voice, “We’d esteem to grasp every other, nevertheless …” It is miles the wretchedness that comes from lunging toward transcendence and discovering it out of attain.
Considered from this angle, the conversation around replica can and might maybe clutch on a few of the urgency of the climate replace debate. We’re recognizing nature’s majesty too unhurried, appreciating its arena of expertise and irreplaceability perfect as we glance it burn.
“I seek a form of parallels between this tipping point that folk feel of their intimate lives, across the seek files from of replica below capitalism, furthermore taking part in out in broader existential conversations in regards to the destiny of the planet below capitalism,” said Sara Matthiesen, a historian at George Washington College whose coming near near guide examines family-making within the post-Roe v. Wade expertise. “It appears to be like like more and more of us are being pressed to this space of, ‘O.K., this methodology of cost is literally going to abolish us.’”
Conversations about replica and environmental sustainability grasp long overlapped. Thomas Malthus anxious that inhabitants suppose would outstrip the meals offer. The 1970s noticed the emergence of ecofeminism. For the reason that 1990s, reproductive justice groups grasp sought an even bigger planet for all teenagers. As of late’s BirthStrikers disavow procreation “attributable to the severity of the ecological crisis.”
While climate trouble has revived aspects of the insidious discourse of inhabitants control, it has furthermore triggered a new wave of activism, born of an working out of upright how deeply these foundational parts of life — replica and the smartly being of the planet — are linked, and the collective motion that is required to retain them.
Step one is renouncing the individualism smartly-known by capitalism and recognizing the interdependence that is necessary for long-time interval survival. We rely on our water offer to be dapper, and our rivers rely on us to not poison them. We query our neighbors to glance our dogs or water our plants whereas we’re away, and offer our succor in form. We hire strangers to perceive after our teenagers or aging oldsters, and have faith of their compassion and competence. We pay taxes and hope these we resolve exercise that cash to retain roads safe, colleges launch, and national parks safe.
These relationships, between us and the natural world, and us and every other, testify to the interdependence that capitalist good judgment would grasp us disavow.
Reproduction is the closing nod to interdependence. We rely on not not as a lot as 2 of us to manufacture us possible. We gestate inner every other human, and emerge with the succor of doctors or doulas or family. We develop up in environments and communities that form our smartly being, security and values. We must safe concrete ways to acknowledge this interdependence and unravel to present a exercise to it.
One in all the of us upon whom my existence depends, my father, died of a coronary heart assault when I was 7. One day, I started carrying his glance, a swish gold thing that might maybe spin up and down my wrist, heavy with sentiment. This yr, on a enterprise travel, I sat down in a resort foyer to safe some writing done. I took the glance off to form, perfect to plot terminate on a bus going home that I’d left it on the resort. Hours of browsing the foyer and sobbing to the resort team did not speak it succor.
Later that evening, writing in a journal, I consoled myself by itemizing a few of the issues he had left me that I couldn’t lose if I attempted: the sizable-ish nostril, the sense of humor, the shrimpy stature that curtailed both his basketball profession and mine.
In that moment, I understood why I had frozen my eggs. Intellectually, I’m skeptical, even vital, of the inherent narcissism of maintaining one’s be pleased genetic cloth when there are already so many teenagers with out oldsters. Even as I was going via with it, injecting remedy into my abdomen every evening until it got here to resemble a dart board, I struggled to verbalize why, not not as a lot as in a formula that made sense to me.
However as I reflected on the immaterial items I love to declare I inherited from him, it modified into obvious I craved genetic continuity, then again fictitious and tenuous it might be. I identified then one thing precious and inexplicable on this craving, and glimpsed how devastating it might be to be unable to plot terminate it. For the first time, I felt justified in my impulse to retain some tiny a part of me that, in some formula, contained somewhat a part of him, which sooner or later might maybe stay again.
Anna Louie Sussman is a journalist who writes on gender, replica, and economics. This text used to be produced in partnership with the Pulitzer Heart on Crisis Reporting.
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